Reality check in Borneo – The decline of Borneo’s orangutan population is not just due to recent deforestation but had begun to occur over 2,000 years.
A scientific paper study published in Plus One journal by a team experts found that the Borneo orang utans begun experiencing a major demographic decline from about 2,000 years ago based on samples collected in six different study sites in Sabah and Kalimantan.
Researchers from Europe, South America, and in Borneo have discussed the endangered orang utan habitat.
“The recent loss of habitat and its dramatic fragmentation has affected the patterns of genetic variability and differentiation among the remaining populations of orang utans and increased the extinction risk of the most isolated ones,” Dr Reeta Sharma from Instituto Gulbenkian de Cincia (IGC, Portugal).
“We used orangutans samples collected in six different study sites in Sabah (Kinabatangan and Danum Valley) and Kalimantan and genetic markers to identify signals of population decline,” added Sharma.
“The dating of the population decline varied across sites but was always within the 200-2,000 years period,” Dr Benoit Goossens, director of DGFC and a co-author on the paper.
“This suggests that in some sites at least, orangutan populations were affected by demographic events (like climate change and arrival of modern humans) that started much before the recent human impact on environment in Borneo,” added Dr Goossens, Danau Girang Field Centre (DGFC, Sabah).
“However, these results do not mean that the recent forest exploitation did not leave its genetic mark on orangutans but suggests that the genetic pool of orang utans is also impacted by more ancient events,” suggested Goossens.
“The orang utan population in the Lower Kinabatangan Wildlife Sanctuary is an example of a recent collapse due to anthropogenic pressure which culminated 50 years ago,” he said.
The recent findings complemented those published in 2006 on the Kinabatangan population and underscored the need to expand the conservation measures suggested under the Orang Utan Action Plan.
This include protection of private lands to connect the existing protected forest lots, corridor establishment, wildlife monitoring and law enforcement, added Dr Goossens.